Photo Thierry Narcy

question 1

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate tense.

Several attempts (already to be made) to identify the virus.
So far, no effective treatment (to be discovered) against FIP.
Gaston Ramon (never to meet) Pasteur.
Bourgelat (to found) Lyon Veterinary School in 1761.
I expect the dog (to stop) barking by the end of the consultation.
While the nurse (to hold) the cat, the vet (to give) him an injection.
The second injection for primo-vaccination has to be administered when the cat (to be) 4 months old. The vaccine protection (to last) one year. Afterwards, the booster shots (to be) scheduled every year.
Ideally, by the age of 4 months, the puppy (to learn) to be clean, and to obey to basic orders. Simple rules (to be applied) at home to take the dog’s daily life in hand, such as having the dog eat after the owners. He (to be) wormed every month until he (to reach) the age of 6 months. Then the worming frequency (to decrease) to one per semester.
When the dog has finished growing-up the vet (to prescribe) an adult food diet.

question 2

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate tense.


GB (to be) the first country to authorize therapeutic cloning in 2002. However, Korean biologists (to create) the first human clone in February 2004. Nevertheless, this technique (still to raise) great oppositions throughout the world. The Vatican violently (to condemn) it, arguing that an embryo is a human being and that cloning (not to respect) his existence (indeed, the extraction of stem cells leads to the death of the embryo). In the US, the scientific community (to be torn) (as in every occidental country), but the president’s council on bioethics claims to be hostile to it. In France, the Parliament (to vote) last July a law forbidding any kind of cloning, with a threat of 30 years maximum of imprisonment. However, research and experimentations on stem cells issuing from existing embryos (to be allowed).
It is while working in that direction that an American team from the Kettering Cancer Center (to announce) in August 2004, that it (to achieve) the creation of the first specific human neurons issuing from embryo stem cells. These neurons are qualified as dopaminergic and should be used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Before therapeutic cloning (to become) generally available to cure heart disease, diabetes, paralysis, etc., scientists (to have) to overcome numbers of hurdles.
At the moment, scientists (to work) to find methods that could cure or treat diseases with embryonic stem cells.

D'après ZECCHINI A. La Grande-Bretagne a donné le feu vert au clonage thérapeutique. La semaine vétérinaire, 2005, 1129.

question 3

Traduisez les phrases suivantes qui sont toutes au présent en français mais qui correspondent à 5 formes verbales différentes en anglais. Pour les phrases c, e, f g, posez la question qui a donné la phrase correspondante.

a. Un chien convulse quand il a ingéré une dose toxique de métaldéhyde. (DL50: 600mg/kg) . (LD50: 600mg/kg)
(NB: An LD50 value is the amount of a solid or liquid material that it takes to kill 50% of test animals (for example, mice or rats) in one dose.)

b. Attention, le chien convulse. Watch out, .

c. Le chien convulse depuis 3 minutes. .
Depuis combien de temps convulse-t-il? ?

d. Le chien convulse, je lui administre du diazepam en intra-rectal. , .
e. Je soigne ce chien depuis 2 ans. .
Depuis combien de temps soignez-vous ce chien? ?
f. Il est insuffisant rénal depuis 6 mois. .
Depuis combien de temps est-il insuffisant rénal? ?

g. C’est la première fois que je le vois convulser. .
L’aviez-vous déjà vu convulser auparavant? ?

question 4

Traduisez les phrases suivantes qui sont toutes à l’imparfait en français mais qui correspondent à 5 formes verbales différentes en anglais.

J’auscultais le chien quand il a fait un arrêt cardio-respiratoire. . NB: ausculter = to examin, faire un arrêt cardio-respiratoire = to suffer a cardio-respiratory arrest.

J’auscultais le chien depuis 3 secondes quand son cœur s’est arrêté. .
NB: to stop to do shtg = s’arrêter pour faire qc

Avant, les gens oubliaient les règles de réanimation cardio-respiratoire. .
NB: réanimation cardio-respiratoire = CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation).

C’était la première fois que je mettais un mouton sous perfusion. .
NB: mettre sous perfusion = to put on a drip

A 25 ans, je référais tous les reptiles à des confrères spécialisés. , .
NB: confrère = fellow.

Je perdais toujours l’appétit après avoir euthanasié un animal. .
NB: euthanasier = to put to sleep.

Avant de changer de travail, je n’étais pas d’astreinte un jour sur deux. Before changing my job, . NB: to be on duty = être de service, to be on call = être de garde.