Exercice 1

 Several attempts have already been made (already to be made) to identify the virus.
So far, no effective treatment has been discovered (to be discovered) against FIP.
Gaston Ramon never met (never to meet) Pasteur. Gaston Ramon never met Pasteur. Ramon and Pasteur are dead, the fact is « historical ».

Bourgelat founded (to found) Lyon Veterinary School in 1761.
I expect the dog will stop (to stop) barking by the end of the consultation.
While the nurse was holding (to hold) the cat, the vet gave (to give) him an injection.
The second injection for primo-vaccination has to be administered when the cat is (to be) 4 months old. The vaccine protection lasts (to last) one year. Afterwards, the booster shots will be (to be) scheduled every year.
Ideally, by the age of 4 months, the puppy has learnt (to learn) to be clean, and to obey to basic orders. Simple rules have been applied (to be applied) at home to take the dog’s daily life in hand, such as having the dog eat after the owners. He is (to be) wormed every month until he reaches (to reach) the age of 6 months. Then the worming frequency will decrease (to decrease) to one per semester.  
When the dog has finished growing-up the vet will prescribe (to prescribe) an adult food diet.

Exercice 2


GB had been (to be) the first country to authorize therapeutic cloning in 2002. However, Korean biologists created  (to create) the first human clone in February 2004. Nevertheless, this technique is still raising (still to raise) great oppositions throughout the world. The Vatican violently condemns (to condemn) it, arguing that an embryo is a human being and that cloning does not respect (not to respect) his existence (indeed, the extraction of stem cells leads to the death of the embryo). In the US, the scientific community has been torn (to be torn) (as in every occidental country), but the president’s council on bioethics claims to be hostile to it. In France, the Parliament voted (to vote) last July a law forbidding any kind of cloning, with a threat of 30 years maximum of imprisonment. However, research and experimentations on stem cells issuing from existing embryos have been allowed (to be allowed).
It is while working in that direction that an American team from the Kettering Cancer Center announced (to announce) in August 2004, that it had achieved (to achieve) the creation of the first specific human neurons issuing from embryo stem cells. These neurons are qualified as dopaminergic and should be used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Before therapeutic cloning becomes (to become) generally available to cure heart disease, diabetes, paralysis, etc., scientists have (to have) to overcome numbers of hurdles.
At the moment, scientists are working (to work) to find methods that could cure or treat diseases with embryonic stem cells.

Exercice 3

a. Un chien convulse quand il a ingéré une dose toxique de métaldéhyde. (DL50: 600mg/kg)
A dog convulses when he has ingested a toxic dose of metaldehyde. (LD50: 600mg/kg) 
(NB: An LD50 value is the amount of a solid or liquid material that it takes to kill 50% of test animals (for example, mice or rats) in one dose.)

b. Attention, le chien convulse. Watch out, the dog is convulsing.

c. Le chien convulse depuis 3 minutes. The dog has been convulsing for three minutes.
 Depuis combien de temps convulse-t-il? How long has he been convulsing?

d. Le chien convulse, je lui administre du diazepam en intra-rectal. The dog is convulsing, I’ll give him diazepam by the intrarectal route/ I'll administer him diazepam by the intrarectal route.

e. Je soigne ce chien depuis 2 ans. I have been treating this dog for 2 years.
Depuis combien de temps soignez-vous ce chien? How long have you been treating this dog?

f. Il est insuffisant rénal depuis 6 mois. He’s been a renal insufficient for 6 months/ He has been a renal insufficient for 6 months.
Depuis combien de temps est-il insuffisant rénal? How long has he been a renal insufficient?

 g. C’est la première fois que je le vois convulser. It is the first time I have seen him convulsing, it's the first time I have seen him convulsing.
  L’aviez-vous déjà vu convulser auparavant? Had you seen him convulsing before?

Exercice 4

J’auscultais le chien quand il a fait un arrêt cardio-respiratoire. I was examining the dog when he suffered a cardio-respiratory arrest. NB: ausculter = to examin, faire un arrêt cardio-respiratoire = to suffer a cardio-respiratory arrest. 

J’auscultais le chien depuis 3 secondes quand son cœur s’est arrêté. I had been examining the dog for three seconds when his heart stopped beating/ I had been examining the dog for three seconds when its heart stopped beating.
 NB: to stop to do shtg = s’arrêter pour faire qc

Avant, les gens oubliaient les règles de réanimation cardio-respiratoire. People used to forget the rules of CPR.
NB: réanimation cardio-respiratoire = CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation).

C’était la première fois que je mettais un mouton sous perfusion. It was the first time I had put a sheep on a drip/ It was the first time that I had put a sheep on a drip.
NB: mettre sous perfusion = to put on a drip

A 25 ans, je référais tous les reptiles à des confrères spécialisés.  When I was 25, I used to refer all the reptiles to specialized fellows/ When I was 25, I would refer all the reptiles to specialized fellows.
NB: confrère = fellow. « used to » correspond à une opposition passé/présent: je ne le fais plus. « would »: on s’intéresse exclusivement à mon habitude passée

Je perdais toujours l’appétit après avoir euthanasié un animal. I always lost my appetite after having put an animal to sleep, I always would loose my appetite after having put an animal to sleep.
NB: euthanasier = to put to sleep.

Avant de changer de travail, je n’étais pas d’astreinte un jour sur deux. Before changing my job, I didn’t use to be on call every other day. NB: to be on duty = être de service, to be on call = être de garde.

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